International aviation grows at a rate of roughly 5% per year. Its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are forecast to increase annually by 3-4%. States at the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have adopted a global market-based measure (MBM) to regulate GHG emissions from international aviation. In this article, Alejandro Piera examines possible legal vehicles used to adopt theglobal MBM system, and potential enforcement mechanisms, including issues such as transparency, bilateral air services agreement, and the role of key players.
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